Some anabolic steroids are included in the list of potent and toxic substances, the distribution of which in Russia entails criminal penalties. This is stated in the resolution, which was signed by Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev.
The list of drugs included: enestebol, epitiostanol, propetandrol, mebolazin and roxybolone. These substances are modifications of drugs already included in the list of prohibited to circulation in the Russian Federation. The government stressed that steroids are not prohibited, but withdrawn from free circulation. In addition, Medvedev signed a document that complements the names of new synthetic drugs, reports News.ru.
Amendments to the list prepared the Interior Ministry in July 2018. The developers of the project explained that the turnover of these anabolic steroids had previously been limited in Australia, Great Britain and Canada. In addition, the World Anti-Doping Agency has included two substances in the list of prohibited drugs from 2018. In the European Union, at least eight cases of poisoning with 2,4-dinitrophenol (also included in the list of prohibited for distribution in the Russian Federation) with a fatal outcome were recorded. It is used as an antiseptic to impregnate wood or fabrics, but the drug is also used for rapid weight loss.
In February, the border between Kaliningrad and Belarus, Russian customs officers detained a man who tried to smuggle anabolic substances into the territory of the Russian Federation, prohibited by the distribution, reminds Nation News. He moved on the train "Moscow-Kaliningrad".
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The herpes virus was activated again in more than half of the crew aboard the space shuttles and the International Space Station, according to a NASA study published in Frontiers in Microbiology. While only a small part of the symptoms appear, the virus’s reactivation rate increases with the duration of the space flight and can pose a significant health risk when traveling to Mars and beyond. NASA's rapid detection systems and research are beginning to protect astronauts — and immunocompromised patients on Earth.
Herpes virus is reactivated by astronauts with a weakened immune system.
"NASA astronauts are experiencing weeks or even months remaining susceptible to microgravity and cosmic radiation – not to mention extreme overloads during takeoff and return to the atmosphere," says senior study author Dr. Satish Mehta from KBR Wyle at the Hobby Space Center. Johnson "This physical problem is exacerbated by already familiar stress factors, such as social separation, imprisonment, and an altered sleep-wake cycle."
To study the physiological effects of spaceflight, Mehta and his colleagues analyze samples of saliva, blood and urine taken from astronauts before, during and after spaceflight.
“During a space flight, the secretion of stress hormones, such as cortisol and adrenaline, increases, and this, as we know, suppresses the immune system. In line with this, we find that astronaut’s immune cells, especially those that normally suppress and destroy viruses, become less effective during space flight, and sometimes up to 60 days after it. ”
And at this moment the dormant viruses are activated again and get in touch.
“To date, 47 out of 89 (53%) astronauts making short flights in the space shuttle, and 14 out of 23 (61%) performing longer flights to the ISS, have herpes viruses in saliva or urine samples,” Mehta reports. "This frequency — and also the amount — of virus excretion is noticeably higher than in samples before or after flight."
A total of four of the eight known human herpes viruses were detected. These include those responsible for oral and genital herpes (HSV), chicken pox and shingles (VZV) – which persist throughout life in our nerve cells – as well as CMV and EBV, which are constantly in our immune cells in childhood, however, does not manifest itself. CMV and EBV are associated with various strains of mononucleosis, or “kissing disease”.
So far, the manifestation of viruses was asymptomatic.
“Only six astronauts identified symptoms associated with viral reactivation. They were all minor. ”
However, the prolonged manifestation of viruses after the flight may endanger people with immunodeficiency or uninfected on Earth, for example, newborns.
"Infectious VZV and CMV remained in biological fluids for 30 days after returning from the International Space Station."
Moreover, as we prepare for manned flights into deep space beyond the Moon and Mars, the risk of herpes virus reactivation may worsen.
“The magnitude, frequency and duration of the manifestation of the virus increases with the duration of the space flight. The astronauts vaccination would be the perfect countermeasure, but for now it is only available against VZV. ”
Still want to space? Tell us in our chat in Telegram.
As it turned out, according to the standards of officials from medicine until 2020, for every Russian they put 0.3 ambulance calls and 1.98 calls to the clinic. Then maybe even less … And that's all we need to know about our “social state”, which is spelled out in the Constitution.
The Ministry of Health of Russia published document No. 11-8 / 10 / 2-5437 – this is a reminder for citizens "On guarantees of free medical care."
THE CONSTITUTION THERE IS NOT A DECISION …
In the very first line of the document, the authors change the text of the Constitution. The fact is that the present article 41 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation reads: “Everyone has the right to health protection and medical care. Medical care in state and municipal healthcare institutions is provided to citizens free of charge. ”
In the document of the Ministry of Health, an addition appears to the article of the Constitution: “In accordance with article 41 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, every citizen has the right to health care and free medical care provided in guaranteed amount without charging in accordance with the Program of State Guarantees of Free Medical Services to Citizens ( Further – Program), annually approved by the Government of the Russian Federation ".
Do you feel the difference in the interpretation of the Basic Law of the country and the interpretation of the chief officers, who care about God knows what? That is, you have the right, but in certain amounts, which the government approved. With a master, so to speak, shoulder …
AMAZING VOLUMES FOR 2019
Thus, each Russian insured in the CHI system has the right to call an ambulance 0.3 times, 2.35 times to go to the clinic for a routine examination and 1.98 times to visit the clinic for the disease.
If you decide to undergo treatment more thoroughly, then there may be some difficulties. The fact is that under the OMS policy for one Russian in a day hospital, only 0.06 of the course of treatment is provided, and at the expense of the budget – 0.004 altogether.
That is, only every 16th will be treated in the day hospital, and only one out of 250 will be treated with budget money.
In the round-the-clock hospital under the OMS policy, one out of every sixth people will be printed once (0.17235 hospitalization cases per insured person), and no one will allow you to lie around for a long time in a hospital bed — 0588 beds per year will be allocated to each OMV policy holder. That is one bed-day will have three hospitalizations.
This is with the usual medical care. As for the high-tech (VMP), which is financed not by the CHI, but from the budget, its volume per resident will be 0.006 cases. That is, in the coming year, one out of 150 can count on VMP.
SAVING ON OUR HEALTH
The government program allows local authorities to adjust the costs themselves – to make them "below the average standards stipulated in this section of the program … based on the real needs of the population."
The clerk in Zaryupinsk will decide that the population has no need for treatment, except for a hangover, and will let money for other needs, for a dacha for example …
True, citizens with sexually transmitted diseases, HIV-infected people, tuberculosis patients and the mentally ill are singled out as a separate group – they are not covered by OMS funding, they will be treated at the expense of the budget.
What is important: most of the analyzes and studies you can do for free once every three years.
And if you get sick and need to take tests urgently and often? Here is not so simple. The whole chapter is devoted to the delivery of medical care in the memo of the Ministry of Health, which is called: "What are the deadlines for you to wait for medical care?"
So, this chapter directly states that “urgent and free of charge” to the citizen of the Russian Federation is only “emergency medical care” when it comes to endangering the patient’s life. "Denial of its provision is not allowed," – explains the document. To provide such assistance to you within two hours.
As for the other two types of medical care – urgent and planned, when there is no threat to life, in this case you will have to wait (and sometimes not wait at all): the district physician has the right to receive you no later than 24 hours after contacting the medical institution, you will have to receive a specialist wait up to 14 days after receiving the referral from the precinct, as many need to wait for X-ray, ultrasound, MRI. If the therapist denied a referral, please be so kind as to pay for a visit to a specialist from your own pocket.
Hospitalization must wait up to 30 days, with cancer patients – up to 14 days.
PROMISE FREE OF CHARGE … THERE IS A GIFT
And finally, the chapter "For what you should not pay." It turns out that the common opinion that all drugs in the hospital should be free is a delusion. Memo guarantees free receipt of drugs, only included in the "list of vital and essential drugs."
Also in the hospital, you are required to provide free blood components and medical nutrition, a free bed and meals for the parent of a child up to four years old and transportation to another medical facility for diagnostic activities if necessary.
The chapter "On paid medical services" begins clearly and simply: "In accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation, citizens have the right to receive paid medical services provided at will."
These are services that will be provided “at your request”, either “anonymously” or if you are a foreign national.
And, finally, “when applying for medical services independently”.
“The patient’s refusal of the offered paid medical services cannot be a reason for reducing the types and volume of medical care provided,” the instruction sheet strictly states.
Memo advises all Russians to get acquainted with their insurance representatives. To get this, you must contact the insurance company.
The insurance representative, according to the memo, should help you in case of need to change the clinic and a doctor. Just keep in mind that if you change clinics more often than once a year, all medical services will be paid for you.
If in a hospital or clinic you were offered to pay for medical services, keep the checks and, after going through the procedures, go with a complaint to the insurance company. They are obliged to check the legitimacy of "collecting funds, and in case of illegality – to arrange for their reimbursement," advises the memo.
President of the "League of Patients", a member of the Expert Council under the Government of Russia, Alexander Saversky, has already called the Ministry of Health reminder a violation of the Constitution. According to him, since medical care should be provided free of charge, there can be no “additional paid services”. “What, can you have additional pneumonia or additional appendicitis?” – the doctor is surprised.
According to Saversky, the memo is aimed not at protecting the rights of patients, but at legalizing paid services in public medical institutions.
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Prostate cancer is considered one of the main causes of death for men, after heart disease, lung cancer and melanoma. According to the World Health Organization, by the age of 65-70, every fourth man faces this terrible disease. The likelihood of a successful cure depends on how quickly the problem is found, so scientists are developing both early diagnosis technologies and ways to stop the growth of cancer cells. It turned out that the healing elements are even in coffee, and they very effectively cope with the disease.
For the first time, scientists have noticed the healing properties of coffee when studying statistics about men: it was found that coffee lovers are faced with prostate cancer 11% less. Highlighting the six main components of coffee, they began to combine them with each other and see how they affect tumors. First, experiments were carried out in test tubes, and then – in mice. As expected, cell growth slowed, and almost doubled.
The most active substances in coffee that destroy cancer cells were Cafestol and Caveolae. How exactly they work, scientists do not yet know, but intend to reveal the algorithm in the near future. It is believed that drugs based on them can be more effective than chemotherapy.
Head of research Atsushi Mizokami noted that the discovery does not mean that men need to drink coffee more often. With all its beneficial qualities, it also has a negative effect on the body.
Do you like coffee? How often do you drink it? Write your answer in the comments, and you can discuss the topic in more detail in our Telegram-chat.
Sitting in a queue at the clinic with a newly instituted paper card (because the old one was lost), it is hard to believe that medicine is one of the most rapidly developing areas. And yet it is. In 2018, they invented and experienced so much that the heart rejoices and the soul sings. And how much will be in 2019!
Alexander Morozov is a practicing physician, popularizer of science and the author of the “Collector of the Future” blog. He is well-versed in the latest medical research, experiments and scientific breakthroughs. We asked Alexander to compile a list of the most significant discoveries of the last year, in his opinion. Also see what to expect from the current year.
Top Medical Achievement 2018
1. Transplantation of bioengineered lungs to the pig
In the summer, American doctors reported successful laboratory experience in growing and transplanting bioengineering lungs. Simplified, it looks like this: the animals took their own cells and grew the lungs from them. The organs were transplanted into four pigs. Experience has shown that the lungs are perfectly accustomed and did not cause serious problems to their owners.
Those are the easiest. Photo: Telegraph
Attempts to grow the lungs from the cells have been made for a long time, but scientists faced a serious problem – such organs were poorly supplied with blood due to an insufficiently developed vascular network. However, thanks to a new technique, this was avoided.
Bioengineering organs will allow a person to change parts of the body as needed, and there is no need to fear the risk of rejection. This, however, is still far away, but the results of the work of the Americans are encouraging.
2. Birth of the first genetically modified children
At the end of the year, a sensational news spread all over the world – the Chinese professor announced the birth of the world's first genetically modified children, girls Lulu and Nana. Thanks to the doctors now they are not threatened with HIV infection, because babies have innate immunity to the terrible disease.
After the statement of the Chinese doctor was followed by a series of events in which it is possible to shoot some spy thriller. In the end, many do not believe in the accuracy of the experiment.
The image is illustrative. Source: dekhnews
– China is a very unusual and interesting country in which (unlike, for example, from America) there are no hard ethical checks regarding genetic experiments. There are no technological obstacles to genome change. The catch is only ethical. But thanks to the modification of genes, humanity will be able to forget at least about hereditary diseases, – believes Alexander.
3. First healthy primate cloning
Long ago (by medical standards), the “authors” of Dolly the sheep claimed that when people learn to clone monkeys, there will no longer be obstacles for human cloning. Of course, except for ethical.
And now – a breakthrough. And again from China. At the beginning of the year, a couple of primates were successfully cloned in this country. Previously, similar experiments also took place, but all cases ended in the death of monkeys due to serious complications with their health. This time everything is fine with the test subjects, they do not complain about their diseases and are not going to die.
Photo: La Stampa
The scientists who conducted the experiment are not averse to cloning a person in about six years. It seems that only violent resistance from the rest of the world, concerned about the moral side of the issue, can prevent them.
4. Implantation of grown goat intervertebral discs.
The intervertebral discs are a layer between the vertebrae that is responsible for cushioning when running and walking. Violations in their work are one of the common causes of back and neck pain. In severe cases, a person cannot even breathe without acute pain.
Today, operations are carried out on splicing the vertebrae and implanting artificial prostheses. However, both methods lead to the restriction of human mobility. The decision is again for the bioengineering implant.
The photo is illustrative. Source: Askideas.com
The Americans raised an intervertebral disc from goat cells and transplanted it. This is a large animal whose spine is comparable in size to a human one. As a result, the goat showed no signs of restricted mobility. Spine as good as new! Excellent result, but far from experiences with people.
5. Immunotherapy for multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis is a terrible disease, contrary to the name that has nothing to do with the so-called senile sclerosis. The bottom line is this. In order to give a command to this or that movement, the brain sends impulses through the nerve fibers. Through the same fibers, impulses go to the brain, thanks to which we sense the outside world. Impulses must run very quickly, for this process the neurons are wrapped in a special fatty tissue – the myelin sheath. If without it the signals travel at a speed of 1 m / s, then with it – 100 m / s.
In multiple sclerosis, the myelin sheath is destroyed by the immune system. The cause of the disease has not yet been reliably established, but it is believed that it is somehow related to the Epstein-Barr virus. Probably, the immune system wants to deal with this virus, but for some reason attacks the myelin sheath. The patient's visual acuity decreases, coordination is disturbed, sleep is lost, various mental disorders are observed.
Symptoms can be slowed down, but on the whole, the disease is still considered incurable. It is for now, because in November, scientists reported on the encouraging results of immune therapy, aimed at destroying Epstein-Barr virus in the nervous tissue. The people who participated in the study did not just stop the development of multiple sclerosis – the disease began to recede!
– It is believed that when humanity overcomes cancer, the last stronghold will remain autoimmune – the most difficult and difficult to treat the disease. And it turned out that immunotherapy in principle can affect autoimmune diseases. This is a huge breakthrough, which previously could not have dreamed of!
6. Nobel Prize for the new principle of cancer treatment
Cancer remains the scourge of humanity. Today, oncology does not sound like a sentence, but there is a chance that the terrible misfortune will soon be able to get rid of forever.
In October, it became known that the Nobel Prize in Medicine was deservedly awarded to the American James P. Ellison and the Japanese Tasuku Hongjo. Read more about their discovery here. In short, scientists have learned to “deceive” cancer cells that, after treatment, cannot prevent the immune system from destroying them.
Image source: Quanta Magazine
The discovery was made in the 1990s. For a long time, the scientific community has been waiting for, when such an epoch-making event will be appreciated according to merit. And here the Nobel committee "gave the go-ahead." This is a kind of recognition that cancer immunotherapy has really made revolutionary changes in oncology.
– I am sure that in 10 years such medicine will be waiting for us, that we will remember with horror 2018 and wonder how we could live like that at all. In Belarus, in my opinion, such therapy will become available in 3-5 years.
7. Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease with Stem Cells
Parkinson's disease usually affects older people. A bent figure, a tremor, slow walking with small steps are all one of the obvious manifestations of the disease. Most often, it occurs after the death of certain neurons responsible for the production of dopamine, which plays an important role in transmitting signals between brain cells.
In November, Japan announced the beginning of trials for treating Parkinson’s disease with stem cells. Earlier animal experiments have shown that the introduction of stem cells into a specific area of the brain leads to their transformation into neurons, which again begin to produce dopamine.
Today, the symptoms of the disease are successfully suppressed with the help of electrodes implanted into the brain. However, this is a rather dangerous and not always predictable operation.
And now it's time for people. The Japanese conducted a similar procedure on seven patients with Parkinson's disease. It remains to wait for the results, but the doctors are inspired. They are confident that it will not be about the suppression of symptoms, but about the complete cure and elimination of the very cause of the disease.
– In the 1990s, there was a similar technique, but at that time they had not yet learned how to “clean” stem cells. As a result, the experiments led to disastrous consequences associated with oncology. The Japanese took into account the shortcomings and now promise treatment without complications. By the way, a similar study will take place in Belarus this year.
8. Editing the Genome to Treat Hunter Syndrome
Hunter's disease occurs due to improper metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. Such patients have a specific appearance – coarse features, sparse teeth, thick skin, low voice. They often have SARS.
A man with Hunter syndrome. Source: realpatientsspeak.com
In 2017, scientists changed the genome of a person with signs of Hunter syndrome. Alas, the experiment did not lead to improvement. However, a year later, the treatment was modified and clinical trials were much more successful. They are currently ongoing.
9. Creation of the first “organism on the chip”
Imagine such a picture: a computer board with a mash made of different human tissues lies on the table. It looks so-so, but for the whole medical industry it is a pleasant and important novelty.
In the spring, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology presented the so-called “organism on a chip” – a set of cells of various organs applied to a microchip (brain, lungs, liver, heart, uterus, intestines, kidneys, pancreas, skin, skeletal muscle).
Why do you need it? All in order to study the effect of new drugs on different organs. For example, so scientists will be able to make sure that the medicine for the heart does not affect the liver and kidneys. All information is displayed in real time on the computer to which the chip is connected.
10. Testing anti-aging drugs
Aging is one of the main "problems" of humanity. One of the leading specialists in the field of gerontology is the British Aubrey De Gray, the author of the concept of SENS ("The strategy for achieving negligible aging by engineering methods"). The scientist identified seven types of damage that with age lead to characteristic diseases for the elderly – atherosclerotic, cardiovascular, Alzheimer's, and so on. It is believed that by affecting each of the seven damage, humanity will learn to inhibit the mechanisms of aging and even rejuvenate the body.
Aubrey Dee Gray This guy knows a lot about rejuvenation. Photo: PRLog
Clinical trials under the SENS concept have been carried out for a long time. Among them are stem cell transplantation. But another crucial step is the destruction of senescent cells, which are also known as zombie cells.
The normal life cycle of any cell of the body ends with apoptosis – programmed self-destruction. However, for some of them, the self-destruction mechanism does not work. Such particles have two ways: some begin to divide uncontrollably and develop into tumors, while others freeze in a certain current state. The first is found and quickly destroyed by a healthy immune system. But zombie cells secrete certain biologically active substances that poison nearby healthy cells. Senescent cells accumulate from a very early age and eventually lead to various inflammatory processes and age-related diseases.
Since the last century, physicians have been testing and studying senolithics – various drugs that destroy and remove zombie cells from the body. In 2018, in the United States, tests of such “old-age drugs” in humans finally began. Senolitic is injected into the cavity of the patient with arthrosis of the knee joint. The complex anti-aging effect cannot be achieved in this way, but at least the point effectiveness of the preparations will be visible.
What to expect from 2019
This year will continue a huge number of studies – you will not list them all. Alexander identified five interesting and significant events.
1. We treat the flu in one day.
It is expected that this year the Japanese medicine will be on sale, which can cure the flu in one day. Drink one pill – and the flu virus in the body is gone! A license for the distribution of the miracle drug has already received the Swiss pharmacological company Roche.
But there is a nuance. The medicine really kills most flu viruses almost instantly. However, the human body still triggers the immune response to the infection, so the symptoms of the disease cannot be avoided – for five days, a practically healthy person will sneeze and toil with fever. But you can not worry about the infection of others, and the symptoms will be easier.
2. Tablets instead of exercises and contraception gel
This year will be large-scale tests of gel for male contraception. Rub it into shoulders and palms – that's all, no children! This method promises to be safe, simple and without long-term effect. Also in 2019, they will start testing pills that can replace physical exercise. One pill instead of an hour of workouts at the gym? Why not!
3. Farewell to Alzheimer
Another old disease, for the treatment of which physicians are tightly taken. They are about to begin clinical trials on people of technology that can restore the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid. This is expected to help in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In any case, animal tests showed tremendous results with full recovery.
4. Heart patches
The Japanese are planning to begin human trials on the so-called heart patches. Stem cells will be applied to the skeleton and then placed on the affected areas of the heart (for example, after a heart attack). Expected full restoration of damaged tissue.
5. Advanced robotic limbs
At present, even the most futuristic prostheses read movements from the remnants of the muscles. In 2019, the first artificial hands should appear, which will be controlled directly through the nervous system. If possible, they will be minimally inferior to natural limbs.
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According to the World Health Organization, cardiovascular diseases account for 31% of all deaths in the world. They develop with improper diet, smoking, lack of physical activity and improper sleep patterns. If scientists already know how food consumed, nicotine, and a sedentary lifestyle affect the heart and blood vessels, then the effect of an abnormal sleep pattern has not yet been studied. However, the mystery has already been solved – Harvard researchers have discovered an unexpected chemical reaction linking poor sleep with heart disease.
In their study, the team decided to understand how inadequate sleep leads to the development of atherosclerosis, one of the most frequent cardiovascular diseases. In the course of this disease, fatty plaques form in the human arteries that interfere with free blood flow and lead to a decrease in the elasticity of the blood vessels and their inflammation. Subsequently, more serious problems arise, such as seizures and stroke, which can cause death.
To identify a chain of chemical reactions that link poor sleep with cardiovascular diseases, scientists conducted an experiment on mice. They were transferred to a diet high in fat and divided into two groups, one of which allowed sleep and the other not. Researchers have noticed that in sleepy mice, fatty plaques in the vessels form much faster and with greater intensity.
Chemical processes that lead to accelerated clogging of blood vessels were identified a little later. According to scientists, it all starts with the malfunction of the hypothalamus – the brain area that is responsible for regulating sleep and producing protein hypocretin. Lack of sleep leads to a lack of this protein, and this increases the amount of the hormone called colony-stimulating factor, accelerating the production of leukocytes. Leukocytes, in turn, lead to the formation of plaques in the vessels and, consequently, to diseases.
Researchers were surprised by such a large role of hypocretins in the occurrence of fatal heart disease. For the sake of interest, they gave mice hypopretin supplements, and their health condition improved markedly. Of course, this may not work in the case of people, but scientists intend to conduct some more research and give an accurate answer.
How many hours a day do you sleep? Are you able to get enough sleep? Write your answers in the comments, and to discuss the topic in more detail, join our Telegram-chat.
Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Kirill criticized women who had to have an abortion because of deviations in the development of the fetus. He made his statement during a meeting with students of medical and pharmaceutical universities in Russia.
Abortions, even if the future physical defects of the fetus are determined, are the most real destruction of the human person, Patriarch Kirill said, reminding that for the Church every embryo is a man, therefore "the destruction of the embryo, and even more so the fetus, is the destruction of the human person."
– Any talk about the need to correct the human race by destroying embryos in the event that it seems to someone that this embryo may not turn out to be a good player, or a good lawyer, or a very strong and healthy person, is very sinful and even criminal, – the patriarch said on Thursday, January 24, at a meeting with medical students, reports Interfax Religion.
The patriarch noted that the destruction of persons with disabilities was propagandized only in Nazi Germany, writes the portal Foma.
As an example, the head of the Russian Church admitted that if, for example, on the basis of prenatal screening, Stephen Hawking’s mother had an abortion, then an eminent scientist would not have come into the world.
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Heart transplantation saves thousands of lives, but waiting for a donor organ can last quite a long time. Artificial hearts that already exist in the USA, but are worth crazy money, help us to live to this point. Researchers from the Russian military plant Progress have mastered the production of miniature pumps, which, with their low cost, provide at least two years of life. Artificial hearts are designed for children, and are comparable in size to candy. Special conditions were required for assembling mechanisms as accurate as clocks.
The workshop in which artificial hearts are assembled is separated from the plant foundation by dampers – devices that absorb any vibrations. Such conditions are necessary for maximum accuracy, because the pumps consist of parts the size of poppy seeds, which are interconnected under a microscope. In order not to scratch them, engineers use brass tools and wooden sticks – otherwise, blood clots can form in the mechanism that can lead to death.
The body is made of titanium and protects the rotors, which are supported on cobalt, chrome and molybdenum alloy supports. The design is almost eternal, and does not produce a single particle of dust – the inner surface is polished and coated with diamond dust. In the walls of the device are hidden sensors that monitor the frequency of rotation of the rotors and monitor the blood flow.
Two tubes come out of the pump, which are lined with surgical tissue and fused with the walls of blood vessels. The control panel of the artificial heart is located outside, just below the ribs, and is connected with a reinforced cable. In addition to it, there are two batteries, working and spare, which charge enough for 12 hours. An artificial heart also includes a belt for carrying the control panel and batteries, wrenches made of titanium, and a special-purpose surgical scalpel.
At the moment, pumps have been tested on bulls and pigs – according to researchers, animals feel great. When they begin to be used in humans, is still unknown.
What do you think about the new development of Russian scientists? Write your opinion in the comments, and you can discuss the topic in more detail in our Telegram-chat.
The world can eradicate tuberculosis by 2045 if the fight against the deadly disease is properly funded, a group of international experts said. In their opinion, inaction will entail enormous economic and social costs, and the world needs to improve screening, treatment and public awareness in order to reduce the more than 10 million cases of the disease that are recorded annually.
How to beat tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis is a chronic lung disease that can be prevented and cured if detected in a timely manner, but more than 1.6 million people die from it every year.
“This is a huge problem and an economic burden for both developing and developed countries,” says Eric Goosby, the United Nations special envoy for this issue. “This is not rocket science, it’s just common sense. We need to start a new prevention strategy. ”
Tuberculosis has been around for thousands of years and lurks in about a quarter of the world's population.
Despite the fact that almost as many people die from it every year as from HIV and malaria combined, there is no commercially available tuberculosis vaccine.
The study of this disease is allocated 10 times less funding than the fight against AIDS.
A group of experts from 13 countries expressed that research and development funding should be quadrupled to about $ 3 billion a year for the struggle to go right.
In India alone, where one third of the deaths from tuberculosis occur in the world, providing better access to treatment and screening to target groups of people at risk of illness can reduce mortality by almost a third with annual costs of $ 290 million.
“The main thing is that we need a lot more new research and new tools,” says Paula Fujiwara, scientific director of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. “Even if we use the tools that we have today, this will not be enough. The goal is to put an end to tuberculosis, but the current reduction in the number of cases is only 1.5-2 percent per year. ”
The few breakthroughs that have occurred in recent months give patients hope. In October, the new treatment of resistant strains of tuberculosis cured 80% of patients in Belarus. Since then, the same treatment was repeated in other countries and the results were similar.
A month earlier, the pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline announced a study showing that the new vaccine was effective in 54% of study participants. In parallel with this, doctors say that a new testing method can help reduce the number of infant deaths under the age of five caused by tuberculosis.
The Lancet study reports that reducing tuberculosis deaths to less than 200,000 people a year will cost about $ 10 billion a year. However, new drugs will be required.
Perhaps by 2045 we will be able to overcome this ailment once and for all. If we do it in time. Have something to say about tuberculosis? Tell us in our chat in Telegram.
My girlfriend's mom lives in a village near Moscow. Last month she felt bad, fell in her room. Well, the grandson was at home, called an ambulance. They took her to the hospital, and here she is there for a day, another week. And do not do anything with it.
A friend decided to talk to a doctor: what is it with my mother, what is the diagnosis, how to treat? The doctor, a woman of about forty, was surprised:
“What do you want from me?”
“I want you to examine your mother, find out her problems and prescribe the appropriate medications,” a friend explained.
– At seventy-eight? The doctor said and looked at her friend as the last fool.
“So what if she is seventy-eight years old?” —A girlfriend was surprised now.
“Nothing,” the doctor shrugged her shoulders and ended the conversation with useful advice.
“I didn’t even immediately understand what she meant,” a friend told later with tears. “What does it mean: dry out!” “Dry out” means that if a person is seventy-eight years old, he will not be examined or treated in our country. Can for kind of hold in the hospital, please. They can give some pills, so that only got rid of. But purposefully engaged in his health – look for problems and select adequate treatment – will not. Because age. Why bother with him, anyway, he will soon die. In our province, an elderly person, having become ill, can only rely on miraculous self-healing. But even if he does not live in the village, but in a big city with medical centers, and the children are ready to pay a lot of money for him, he still has very little chance of recovery.
Although in developed countries it would most likely be put on its feet with exactly the same diseases. Because there old people are treated. Tinker with them. Although they also know very well that even cured people, they will live a short time, about five years or at best ten, and will not bring any benefit to the economy or culture over the years. Why they are not thrown on “douching,” like ours?
Oddly enough, but mainly for pragmatic reasons. That, working with them, learn to prolong human life. Because it is impossible to achieve an increase in life expectancy, if not to treat the elderly. Do not study their diseases and not explore the possibilities of their organisms. Older people in this sense are invaluable material. Especially in our country, where there are very few of them at all. We have people on the whole die, not reaching old age.
According to UN statistics, for 2013, the average life expectancy of a Russian is 66 years. In Japan —82 years, in France – 81, Australia, Sweden, Switzerland, Iceland, Canada – 80, USA and Great Britain – 78. For our country, a 78-year-old patient is a rarity. These patients should be treated as great gifts to medical science. And we throw them in the trash: douhazhivayvay. Although ask the same doctor from the village hospital, does she want to live longer herself? Surely he will say what he wants. But where does it come from, is it longer, if our medicine has no experience in treating the elderly? The day will come, and it will twist just like my friend's mom. And in the same way she will go on “douise”. And then her children will go. And then grandchildren. In Japan, the average life expectancy by then will reach 100 years, in the USA and Great Britain – up to 90. And we all will be like in the 19th century. Dohaha.